Renton Thurston is named after the character Mark Renton from the film Trainspotting.
Renton's sister, Diane, is named after another character from Trainspotting, Diane Coulston.
Adroc Thurston is named after Adam Horovitz, aka Ad-Rock, from the Beastie Boys. The character is occasionally referred to as "The King". which corresponds with the variant of the musician's alias.
Adroc's partners in discovering Nirvash, Dr. Yauch and Dr. Diamond, are named after Adam Yauch and Mike Diamond from the Beastie Boys.
Axel Thurston is named after Axl Rose. In episode 50, the family record book reveals that his wife's name was Rose.
Renton and Diane's mother's name was Blau, which means blue in German and Catalan (Spanish). Their uncle's name is Yucatan, which is a reference to the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.
The Thurstons' last name is a reference to Thurston Moore of the band Sonic Youth.
Eureka is named after a famous exclamation attributed to the Greek sage Archimedes.
Gidget is the name of the protagonist of a series of movies named after her from the late 1950s and early 1960s. Moondoggie is the name of her boyfriend in these movies. These movies are tied into '60s surfing pop-culture.
Moondoggie's real name is James Darren Emerson, which is a reference to James Darren, who played Moondoggie in the previously mentioned movies, and Darren Emerson, the famous electronic music DJ. His surname may also refer to an essay by Maurice Maeterlinck from the collection titled Le Tresor des Humbles, the collection also being responsible foe Tresor Laboratory, the facility Eureka and the Nirvash were first studied at.
Maurice, Maeter, and Linck's names refer to the famous playwright, poet, and essayist Maurice Maeterlinck.
Matthieu's appearance and character is based on inspiration from Rob Machado, a well known surfer who likes to play with music.
Stoner may be based on Ron Stoner, who, fitting with the theme of lifting, was a surf photographer.
Holland's appearance is based on inspiration from Billy Bob Thornton.
Holland is constantly seen reading the book The Golden Bough by Sir James George Frazer, a comparative study of mythology and religion.
Anemone is named after an equally unbalanced young woman from the Ryu Murakami novel Coin Locker Babies. The Anemone from the novel also kept a pet named Gulliver (an alligator, in her case).
Charles and Ray are named after Charles Eames and Ray Eames, two married designers. They also may refer to the well known jazz musician Ray Charles.
The name Beams may have been chosen in reference to the Beams T Company, which produces T-shirts by a wide variety of hip designers. To coincide with the show's broadcast, Beams T introduced a pair of T-shirts with Eureka Seven based typographical logos by Tsuyoshi Kusano.
Renton's uncle is extremely similar in appearance to Jet Black, a character in Cowboy Bepop. He is also employed in law enforcement, which was Jet Black's former occupation at the start of the series. Several members of Eureka Seven production team were also involved with Cowboy Bepop.
Dr. Greg "Bear" Egan is named after science fiction writers Greg Bear and Greg Egan.
The Vodarac priest Tiptory is named after James Tiptree Jr., a pseudonym of science fiction author Alice Sheldon.
Some of Eureka's appearance and design is based on Katue Piason from Ginga Hyoryu Vifam. Many fans believe that Eureka Seven was inspired by old Sunrise anime titles, including Vifam and that series character designer Kenichi Yoshida was inspired by the works of Toyoo Ashida and Yoshikazu Yasuhiko to make the characters of the series.
Majority of the mentioned cities in Eureka Seven refer to German and Spanish words.
In the beginning of episode 45, the two characters that are briefly shown are actually the protagonists of the PS2 Eureka Seven games, Sumner Sturgeon and Ruri, in their New Vision attire.
Sumner Sturgeon may be named after science fiction author Theodore Sturgeon. The name Sumner may refer to musicians Bernard Sumner or Gordon "Sting" Sumner. Bernard is the name of Sumner's father in the Eureka Seven games.
The town Anemone was experimented on in was named Warsaw, and the facility where the experiments took place was called Joy Division; these are references to the band Joy Division and its previous name "Warsaw". These are, even more so, directly referring to the name of the capital of Poland (Warsaw) as well as the “Joy Division” - the group of selected female prisoners of Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, forced to render sexual services to Nazi officers during Second World War (respectively).
The series' mecha, LFOs, refer to British electronic music act in the late 1980s and mid 1990s. They could also refer to the American trio popgroup, led by singer Rich Cronin.
The military mecha, KLFs, refer to the British musical group called "The KLF".
Ao's name means "deep blue" in Japanese; this could reference the ocean, as the title AO means "Astral Ocean".
Ao's sister, Amber, is a reference to the golden gemstone amber; possibly from the amber that contained a ring with the initials "R to E", which Renton and Eureka found during their trip to Earth in Eureka Seven episode 43.
Fleur's name means flower in French; Fleur is originally from France. Her last name, Blanc, is the French word for white.
The island Ao and Naru grew up on, Iwato Jima, is a reference to the Japanese island Iwo Jima. In AO, Iwato Jima is located in the Okinawa Prefecture, and this could refer to the WWII battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa in 1945 between Japan and the United States.